Hashem commands Moshe to make a census of Bnei Israel. Each Jew had to donate a small coin valued at half-a-shekel, and through this method the census was taken.
Hashem finished entrusting Moshe with all of the details concerning the construccion of the Mishkan; Now, they are once more commanded:
¨And the children of Israel shall keep the Sabbath, to make the Sabbath throughout their generations, for a perpetual covenant.
It is a sign between Me and the children of Israel for ever: for in six days G‑d made heaven and earth, and on the seventh day he rested and was refreshed.
All this occurred on the summit of Har Sinai.
When Moshe does not descend from the mount when expected, the airev rav, the group of Egyptians who had joined Bnei Israel in the Exodus, convinces the Jews to make a golden calf to worship.
Aharon knew that Moshe would come down sooner or later, and as he observed this terrible event, trying to postpone it, he started collecting jewelry, yet these rebels,out of control give there jewels for the making of an idol. The women refused to give their jewels for the formation of an image.
Aharon threw all the jewels into the fire and subsequently a golden calf emerged. And all screamed ¨"This is your god, O Israel, which brought you up out of the land of Egypt."
And Aaron saw; and he built an altar.
And G‑d said to Moshe: "Go down, for your people, which you have brought up out of the land of Egypt, have become corrupt. They have turned aside quickly from the way which I commanded them...¨
Hashem tells Moshe His plan to aniquilate the Jewish People. Moshe begs Him for mercy and asks Hashem for forgiveness. Hashem accepts and postpones the punishment for such sin.
Moshe descends the Mount and takes with him the luchot of Hashem, when he sees the golden calf and the celebrations around it, he throws the luchot and destroys them by the mount.
Moshe took the golden calf, burned it, crushed its remains and mixed the powder with water, and was given to Bnei Israel to drink in order to test their integrity.
Aharon explains to Moshe how this terrible sin came about, so Moshe said ¨Whoever´s heart is totally dedicated to Hashem, let him come to!¨
Only the Tribe of Levy responded to Moshe´s call.
And Moshe said ¨Take your swords and execute all who were involved in this terrible act.¨
And this is how it came about that the Leviim executed 3,000 people, all from the airev rav.
The next morning Moshe informs the people that he would return to heaven to ask Hashem for forgiveness. And after forty days of unceasing prayer, Hashem answers ¨I have decided that, rather than destroy K´lal Israel at once, I will remove the effects of their sin gradually throughout the generations.¨
And Hashem lets Moshe know that after this event, His Shechina will no longer be able to dwell in the camp to guide them. Moshe follows by removing his tent away from the camp, so he could continue receiving Hashem´s instructions and revelations.
And every time the Shechina spoke to Moshe, a cloud of smoke descending upon Moshe´s tent could be seen.
And G‑d said to Moses: "Hew for yourself two tablets of stone like the first; and I will write upon these tablets the words that were on the first tablets, which you did break.¨
And Moshe ascends to the Mount once more on the morning of Rosh Jodesh Elul and G-d reveals to Moshe His "Thirteen Attributes of Mercy":
1. HaShem´s mercy (before the sin)
2. HaShem mercy (after the sin)
7. Abundant in mercy
8. Great in truth
9. Keeps mercy for a thousand generations
10. Bears iniquity
11 Willful transgressions
12. Unintentional sins
And when Hashem finishes, He restablishes His covenant with Am Israel.
Moshe stayed in Heaven 40 days and 40 nights. And on the 10th of Tishrei Hashem forgave Bnei Israel for the sin of the golden calf, Hashem designated this day as a day for forgiveness for future generations: the day of Yom Kippur.
When Moshe descended with the second tablets, his face shone with the reflection of the Divine Rays of Glory. Moshe covered his face with a veil in order not to cause fear amongst his people. He uncovered it only when speaking to Hashem or when teaching Torah.