In Loving Memory of our Dear Parents

Benjamin Assa & Rebeca Assa z"L

Parasha Vaikra

This Parasha opens the 3rd book of the Chumash: Vayikra, Leviticus. Since for the most part it speaks of the rituals carried out by the Kohanim who were descendants of Aharon, a Levy = Leviticus, hence the name of this Chumash.

All the Parashiot in the book of Vayikra took place in one month.!!!

Vayikra begins with Hashem communicating the laws governing the bringing of the korbanot (offerings), the animal and meal offerings that are the central feature of the service performed in the Sanctuary.

The Jew would go to the Mishkan with his Korban and present it to the Kohen, who was in charge of conducting this Holy ritual.

The Korban evoked Heavenly satisfaction, by binding this world with the upper heavens, it called forth Divine blessing, and strengthened the bond between the Yehudi and Hashem.

Only Kosher species were acceptable for a sacrifice, so they could be eaten later.

In some cases flour and oil were used as offerings.

There were more than 50 different types of Korbanot, divided in 5 groups:
Olah, Mincha, Shlamim, Chattat and Asham. 

Olah: it was superior to all Korbanot, this gift to Hashem represented a Jew´s desire to purify himself and attach himself to Bore Olam, it was an act of gratitude.  

Mincha: Was also an act of gratitude. It was an offering consisting mostly of flour and oil.

Shlamim: was a free-will offering and through the donation of the Korban the Yehudi expressed his happiness and joy. 

Chattat and Asham: They were brought by a Jew who transgressed and wished to repent. 

Parasha Vayakel - Pikudei

The Parashah of Vayak'hel records the actual fulfillment of G-d's commandments on how to build the Mishkan, in accordance with the instructions Moshe received which were recounted in earlier parashiot. 

It should be noted that last week's parashah, Ki-Tisa, took place on the day of Yom Kippur of the year 2448, 6 months after the exodus from Egypt , and this parasha took place the morning after Yom Kippur. 

After Moshe descends from the Mount with the second tablets, he warns the Jewish Nation to observe the laws of Shabbat, Moshe tells them that they cannot transgress its laws by building the Mishkan.

Moshe continues informing them about everything related to the donations for the building of the Mishkan. All Bnei Israel began to work with eagerness toward the building of the Mishkan. Joyfully and enthusiastically all The People brought all of the necessary donations.

Betzalel and Ahaliav were chosen to build the vessels of the Mishkan. The Divine Inspiration enabled them to create the vessels exactly as Hashem had commanded. 

After a few days, the artisans informed Moshe that they had enough donations. Moshe asked the Nation to stop with the contributions.

The Parasha mentions the elaboration of: the Altar of Burnt Offerings, the Basin, the tapestries, the tent covering, the walls of the Mishkan, the Parochet, the screen for the doorway, the Ark, the Kaporet (Ark´s cover), the table, the Menorah, the Incense Altar and the courtyard. Betzalel also made the Anointing Oil holy, and the Incense of Spices pure..

This is the last Parasha of the Chumash Shemot, and just how its name indicates (pekudei = accounts) this portion of the Torah in part dedicates itself to the audit done for all of the gold, silver and copper used for the construction of the Mishkan.

The goldsmiths and the artisans presented Moshe with all of the integral parts of the Mishkan, exactly as Hashem had commanded. Realizing that they had fulfilled the Divine purpose, Moshe blesses them. 

The parasha continues with the making of the priestly garments. 

Moshe receives the order to set up the Mishkan, he then places each vessel in its proper place. 

The statement "Moshe fulfilled Hashem´s commandment as Hashem had told him” recurs throughout the Parasha numerous times, to teach us that Moshe built the Mishkan "as Hashem told him.” 

The Cloud of the Shechina descended upon the Mishkan and filled it with Its presence.

Out of respect for the Shechina, Moshe did not enter the Mishkan until the Cloud stood over the Tabernacle. 

And this is how it came about, on the first of Nissan, Moshe entered the Mishkan with much joy. 

And this is how the second book of our sacred Torah concludes!

Perasha Ki - Tisa

Hashem commands Moshe to make a census of Bnei Israel.  Each Jew had to donate a small coin valued at half-a-shekel, and through this method the census was taken.

Hashem finished entrusting Moshe with all of  the details concerning the construccion of the Mishkan; Now, they are once more commanded:

¨And the children of Israel shall keep the Sabbath, to make the Sabbath throughout their generations, for a perpetual covenant.

It is a sign between Me and the children of Israel for ever: for in six days G‑d made heaven and earth, and on the seventh day he rested and was refreshed.

All this occurred on the summit of Har Sinai. 

When Moshe does not descend from the mount when expected, the  airev rav, the group of Egyptians who had joined Bnei Israel in the Exodus, convinces the Jews to make a golden calf to worship. 

Aharon knew that Moshe would come down sooner or later, and as he observed this terrible event, trying to postpone it, he started collecting jewelry, yet these rebels,out of control give there jewels for the making of an idol. The women refused to give their jewels for the formation of an image.

Aharon threw all the jewels into the fire and subsequently a golden calf emerged. And all screamed ¨"This is your god, O Israel, which brought you up out of the land of Egypt."

And Aaron saw; and he built an altar.

And G‑d said to Moshe: "Go down, for your people, which you have brought up out of the land of Egypt, have become corrupt. They have turned aside quickly from the way which I commanded them...¨ 

Hashem tells Moshe His plan to aniquilate the Jewish People. Moshe begs Him for mercy and asks Hashem for forgiveness.  Hashem accepts and postpones the punishment for such sin. 


Moshe descends the Mount and takes with him the luchot of Hashem, when he sees the golden calf and the celebrations around it, he throws the luchot and destroys them by the mount.

Moshe took the golden calf, burned it, crushed its remains and mixed the powder with water, and was given to Bnei Israel to drink in order to test their integrity.

Aharon explains to Moshe how this terrible sin came about, so Moshe said ¨Whoever´s heart is totally dedicated to Hashem, let him come to!¨

Only the Tribe of Levy responded to Moshe´s call.   

And Moshe said ¨Take your swords and execute all who were involved in this terrible act.¨

And this is how it came about that the Leviim executed 3,000 people, all from the airev rav.    

The next morning Moshe informs the people that he would return to heaven to ask Hashem for forgiveness. And after forty days of unceasing prayer, Hashem answers ¨I have decided that, rather than destroy K´lal Israel at once, I will remove the effects of their sin gradually throughout the generations.¨

And Hashem lets Moshe know that after this event, His Shechina will no longer be able to dwell  in the camp to guide them.   Moshe follows by removing his tent away from the camp, so he could continue receiving Hashem´s instructions and revelations. 

And every time the Shechina spoke to Moshe, a cloud of smoke descending upon Moshe´s tent could be seen.

And G‑d said to Moses: "Hew for yourself two tablets of stone like the first; and I will write upon these tablets the words that were on the first tablets, which you did break.¨

And Moshe ascends to the Mount once more on the morning of Rosh Jodesh Elul and G-d reveals to Moshe His "Thirteen Attributes of Mercy":

1. HaShem´s mercy (before the sin)

2. HaShem mercy (after the sin)

3. Power

4. Compassionate

5. Gracious

6. Long-Tempered

7. Abundant in mercy

8. Great in truth

9. Keeps mercy for a thousand generations

10. Bears iniquity

11 Willful transgressions

12. Unintentional sins

13. Cleanses

And when Hashem finishes, He restablishes His covenant with Am Israel.

Moshe stayed in Heaven 40 days and 40 nights. And on the 10th of Tishrei Hashem forgave Bnei Israel for the sin of the golden calf, Hashem designated this day as a day for forgiveness for future generations: the day of Yom Kippur.

When Moshe descended with the second tablets, his face shone with the reflection of the Divine Rays of Glory.  Moshe covered his face with a veil in order not to cause fear amongst his people.  He uncovered it only when speaking to Hashem or when teaching Torah.



Parasha Tetzave

G-D says to Moshe, ¨You shall command the children of Israel, that they bring to you pure olive oil crushed for the light, to raise an everlasting flame.¨ And with this order, Bnei Israel receives a new mitzvah, the kindling of the menorah with the purest of oils, oil obtained from the first pressing of an olive oil.

Hashem assigns Aaron and his descendents to be Kohanim, and Aharon becomes the first Kohen Hagadol.

 The Kohen Hagadol wore 8 priestly garments: 


It was a square chest plate, containing 12 gems, in each was engraved the name of the 12 sons of Yaacov.. 


It was an apron woven with golden threads. Its back was supported by two shoulder straps overlapping the kohen´s shoulders to the front. The stones were engraved with the names of the twelve tribes of Israel. 


It was a sleeveless mantle made of sky blue wool, attached to its bottom hem were adornments that tinkled when the Kohen walked.


Worn on the Kohen´s forehead, it was a golden plate on which was engraved the letters ¨kodesh laHashem.¨


Shirt-like garment woven from white linen, reached down to the kohen´s soles.


They were woven from white linen.


It was a belt woven from four different kinds of materials. It was very long and went around the kohen´s waist several times.


It consisted of a long ribbon of white linen that wrapped around the kohen´s head several times. 

The Kohanim wore four garments:

  • the ketonet, the shirt

  • the mishnasayim, the breeches

  • the avnait, the belt

  • the migba´as, the turban

 Moshe presented Aharon and his children, by the entrance of the Mishkan, dressed in their priestly garments. The inauguration of the Mishkan lasted seven days.

 Hashem commands that a lam be offered on the mizbach every morning and every afternoon.

And Hashem affirms the sanctity of the Mishkan, and announces that this will be His dwelling next to Bnei Israel.

 THE INTERIOR ALTAR, THE MIZBACH HAPENIMI (which is not described in the previous parasha): 

It was made of shittim wood and covered with pure gold, measured 60 square centimeters and its height was 1.20 meters. It was located in the kodesh section between the shulchan and the menora and it served for the burning of the ketoret, (incense), which was done every morning and every afternoon. Hashem said, ¨The ketoret is the most beloved of all offerings. All the other korbanot atone for transgressions, but the ketoret is offered purely to bring joy and happiness.¨

Only after the ketoret was offered did the Shechina come down to reside in the Mishkan.


Perasha Teruma

This Parasha details the construction of the Mishkan (Tabernacle) that accompanied the Bnei Israel throughout the desert. 

After Hashem proclaims the 10 Commandments and then the social laws (Parasha Mishpatim), Hashem, Now  instructs them to build a Mishkan, or “dwelling,” in which Hashem will “dwell within them” as a constant presence in the Israelite camp.

The people of Israel contribute materials for the construction of the Mishkan: gold, silver and copper, wool, flax, goat hair, animal skins, wood, olive oil, spices and gems, amongst other things.

On the summit of Har Sinai, Moshe is given detailed and explicit instructions on how to construct this dwelling for Hashem. 

Hashem shows Moshe the design and the measurements of the building and of each vessel specifically.
The most sacred vessel of the Mishkan.  Build of wood but overlaid with pure gold.  It measured 1.5 meters x 90 cms x 90 cms.  On the top it had he figure of two Golden Keruvim.  Inside were the Lujot.

Made of shittim Wood and overlaid with gold.  It measured 1.2 meters x 60 cms.  It had four legs, the Lechem Hapanim were placed inside each compartment each Friday and remained fresh until the following Shabbat.

Same as THE HOLY ARK, it had two rings on each side where the rods were placed for it to be transported. 

3. CANDELABRUM - MENORA: Made of one piece of pure gold.  It measured 1.8 mts.  It had a central branch and three arms on each side making that a total of 7.

4.THE TABERNACLE- MISHKAN: Measured 18 meters x 6 meters.  Its walls were of wood overlaid by gold with a silver base.  All of the inner walls were covered by curtains that were finely woven and beautiful skins covered the ceiling.

5.THE DIVIDING CURTAIN-PAROCHET :        It was a fine tapestry held by 4 pillars which divided the sacred from the MOST sacred (Kodesh Hakodashim), it measured 6 meters x 6 meters. 

6.DIVIDING SCREEN - MASACH: It was like a special curtain woven of a twenty-four-fold thread and sewn onto it from both sides were designs of keruvim.

There were 2 alters: 
-The exterior altar or the Haolah, also called mizbach hanechoshet was were the korbanot were offered, it was overlaid with copper. It measured 3 x 3 meters.  A smooth ramp led up to the mizbach. The interior altar is described in the following Parashiot.


It was an area that was used for the daily services.  It measured 60 meters by 30 meters.  It was surrounded by fine linen curtains and its frontal part facing east, had a grand portal which measured 12 meters.

Perasha Mishpatim

This Parasha contains a great number of laws Hashem taught Moshe immediately after the giving of the Torah.


Some of the laws cited in this Parasha are laws concerning:


-Damage done to his fellow man

-Civil liability for loans and deposits

-Abuse of minors



-Proper treatment of a converse

-Prohibition against afflicting a widow or an orphan





-Prohibition against eating Taref

-Returning something lost

-Lies, injustices and bribes

-Shmitta (Sabbatical Year)

-Observance of Shabbat

-Observance of Pesach, Shavuot and Sukkoth

...Among others


Hashem then promises Bnei Israel protection throughout their journey in the desert.


Hashem advises the Bnei Israel to follow His precepts so they can receive His blessings and inherit the PROMISED LAND, the conditions necessary to conquer it and the warning against assimilation.


At the end of Parasha Mishpatim, the Torah relates events which took place prior to Matan Torah. It narrates how Hashem commanded that Moshe, Aharon and his children, along with the 70 Elders should ascend the mountain. On that day Moshe wrote the first Sefer Torah.

The Torah then continues narrating what occurred after the giving of the Torah: ¨And Hashem said to Moshe, "Come up to Me to the mountain and remain there, and I will give you the stone tablets, the Law and the commandments, which I have written to instruct them."



And Moshe ascended the Har Sinai, and remained there for 40 days and 40 nights studying Torah in detail and with explanations.

Parasha Itro

This Parasha narrates the reunion between Moshe and Itro, his father-in-law, Tziporah, his wife, and their two children in from of Har Sinai.

His wife and children had returned to Midian to avoid the sufferings in Egypt and reached the desert where Bnei Israel camped.
Moshe receives his father-in-law with the best of honors, and narrates all the miracles which Hashem performed for the people of Israel and how they were saved by Hashem.

And Itro recognized Hashem!!  

Itro advises Moshe to appoint judges to assist him in the strenuous task of governing and administering justice to the people.

With approval from Hashem, Moshe accepts Itro´s proposal and assigns judges for the simpler tasks and reserves the most difficult for himself.  

The Children of Israel arrived to the Sinai desert on the 1st of Sivan 2448, and they camped there.

Hashem sent Moshe to transmit the following message to Bnei Israel.

“…. Now therefore, if you will indeed obey My voice, and keep My covenant, you shall be My own treasure from among all peoples, for all the earth is Mine.  And you shall be to Me a kingdom of priests, and a holy nation.”

And in unison The People answered: NAASE VENISHMA!!! (All that Hashem speaks we will do) without knowing what would be asked of them!! 
And The People prepare for Matan Torah, the giving of the Torah.  They had to abstain themselves from intimate relations, to purify and sanctify themselves around the Har Sinai for three days without touching it.

On the 6th of Sivan, which was Shabbat, in the morning, there were thunders and lightnings, and a thick cloud upon the mountain, and the sound of a shofar exceedingly loud, so that all the people in the camp trembled.

And Moshe descended towards the People. 

 Hashem came down upon Mount Sinai, on the top of the mountain. Hashem called Moshe up to the top of the mountain, and Moshe went up . 
And Hashem spoke the first two commandments of the Torah.  The other eight were taught to The People by Moshe. 

  1. I Am Your G-d who took you out of Egypt. 
  2. Have No Other G-ds
  3. You Shall Not Take G-d's Name In Vain 
  4. You Shall sanctify the Shabbat day and keep it holy
  5. You shall respect your father and your mother
  6. You Shall Not Murder 
  7. You Shall Not Commit Adultery 
  8. You Shall Not Steal 
  9. You Shall Not Bear False Witness 
  10. You Shall Not Covet


 The People are overwhelmed by all that they see and hear, and beg Moshe: “You speak with us, and we shall hear; but let not Hashem speak with us, lest we die!”

“Do not fear” Moshe tells them, for it was a great privilege that Hashem gave you.  
The Parasha concludes with a number of laws, including the prohibition  to use any irontools in constructing an altar to Hashem.

Parasha Beshalach

In Beshalach, the process of their liberation from Egypt continues, as the children of Israel battle external and internal threats to their freedom and advance toward the Exodus—to receive the Torah at Mount Sinai.

Moshe takes along Joseph’s bones for burial in the Holy Land, in fulfillment of the promise made by the children of Israel at the beginning of their Egyptian exile.

Soon after allowing the Jews to leave Egypt, Pharaoh chases them wanting their return.

The Jews find themselves trapped between the sea and Pharaoh´s army. Their situation seemed hopeless. As soon as the children of Israel beheld the Egyptian army and no means of escape, they all did teshuva in their hearts and cried out to Hashem, asking Him for help.

As the mighty waves rolled towards them, Nachson ben Aminadav, leaped into the water first. Hashem commanded Moshe to raise his rod, yet it split only after Hashem´s shechina appeared to the sea.

The Bnei Israel walk through the sea, with the Egyptian army merciless pursuing them. When all the Egyptians had entered the bed of the sea, Hashem commanded Moshe to stretch out his hand so the sea would return to its natural course and drown all the Egyptians.

Moshe and all the Bnei Israel sing a song of praise in thankfulness to Hashem.

They travelled in the desert for three days. The Bnei Israel complain to Moshe and Aaron about the lack of water in the desert.

Miraculously Hashem converts the bitter water of Mara, into sweet drinking water.

Requesting for bread and meat, the Bnei Israel complain to Moshe “It would have been better for us to perish during the days of Darkness in Egypt.”

Hashem reveals to Moshe and Aaron that He would cause bread (Mann) to rain down from Heaven, and meat in form of quails.

The children of Israel are instructed to gather a double portion of manna on Friday, as none will descend on Shabbat, the divinely decreed day of rest.

Dasan and Aviram disregard Moshe´s warning and go out to collect Mann on the seventh day, but find nothing. Aaron preserves a small quantity of manna in a jar, as a testimony for future generations.

Then came the nation of Amalek, and waged war with Israel in Rephidim, the Amalekim are defeated by an army lead by Yehoshua and by Moshe´s tefilla.

Hashem said to Moshe “Write this for a memorial in a book, and rehearse it in the ears of Yehoshua: that I will utterly blot out the remembrance of Amalek from under the heaven.”


Parasha Bo

Hashem commanded Moshe to warn Pharaoh about the eighth plague which He would bring upon all Egyptians.  And so with this, the last three plagues invade Egypt: a swarm of locustsdevours all the crops and greenery; a thick, palpable darkness envelops the land; and before the 10th plague Hashem told Moshe “this plague will be as destructive as all the other plagues put together. After this plague,” Hashem continues, “not only will Pharaoh allow you to leave the country, he will drive you out of his country.” At midnight of the 15th of the month ofNissan all the firstborn of Egypt are killed.

The first mitzva is commanded to the Bnei Israel:  to set the Jewish calendar in accordance with the monthly birth of the new moon, and to regard the month of the Exodus as “the head of the months.”

Hashem commands to offer a “Passover Offering,” while still in the land of Egypt.  A lamb or kid is to be slaughtered, and its blood sprinkled on the doorposts and lintel of every Israelitehome, so that the angel of death could pass over each household when the plague of the first born will strike all Egyptians. All Israelites shall eat the meat on the night of the fifteenth of Nissan, roasted with fire, and with unleavened bread and with bitter herbs they shall eat it. 

This event shall be established a festival for all generations, Pesaj.

The Bnei Israel circumcise themselves and offer the Korban Pesaj.

Pharaoh´s resistance is finally broken when the death of the first- born strikes all of Egypt. He implores Moshe that the Bnei Israel leave immediately, and so their dough has no time to rise. Before leaving, the Israelites ask the Egyptians for all of their silver and gold and garment, thereby fulfilling the promise made to Abraham that his descendants would leave Egypt with great wealth.

The children of Israel journeyed from Rameses to Sukkoth, about six hundred thousand men on foot, besides children, with a multitude of flocks, herds and cattle.

Moses instructs them to observe the following mitzvot as commemorators of the Exodus:

Moshe said to Bnei Israel:   “On the 14th of Nissan every year, remember this day, in which you came out from Egypt, out of the house of bondage; for by strength of hand G‑d brought you out from this place: no leavened bread shall be eaten.”

All firstborn should be consecrated to Hashem, in commemoration of Hashem´s killing the firstborn of Egypt and sparing the Jewish firstborn, this includes all first-born animals as well.

The tefillin should be worn as “a sign on your arm and a remembrance between your eyes,” as an indication of your commitment to Hashem.



Parasha Vaera

Moshe protests to Hashem over the sufferings of Bnei Israel.  Hashem reveals Himself to Moshe and assures the newly appointed leader that the redemption is near, employing the “four expressions of redemption:” He promises to take out the Children of Israel from Egypt, deliverthem from their enslavement, redeem them, and acquire them as His own chosen people at Mount Sinai; He will then bring them to the land He promised to the Patriarchs, Abraham, Itzjak and Yaakov as their eternal heritage.

Moshe relays Hashem´s words to the children of Israel, “but they did not listen to Moshe because of their anguish of spirit and cruel bondage."

Moshe tells Hashem that the children of Israel have not listened to his words, how then will Pharaoh listen to his plea, he asks.

The Torah breaks in its narrative of Moshe´s mission to Pharaoh to detail the family tree of the first leader of Israel.

Moshe was eighty years old, and Aaron eighty-three years old, when they spoke to Pharaoh

They repeatedly come before Pharaoh to demand in the name of Hashem, “Let My people go, so that they may serve Me in the wilderness.”  Pharaoh does not accept.


“I will harden Pharaoh’s heart then multiply My signs and wonders in Egypt,” Hashem tells Moshe and Aaron. 


Pharaoh repeatedly refuses. Aaron’s staff turns into a snake and swallows the magic sticks of the Egyptian sorcerers. Despite this, Pharaoh hardened his heart and refused to set the Bnai Israel free.

Hashem then begins to send a series of devastating plagues upon the Egyptians.

The waters of the Nile turn to blood; swarms of frogs overrun the land; lice infest all men and beasts. Hordes of wild animals invade the cities; a pestilence kills the domestic animals; painfulboils afflict the Egyptians. For the seventh plague, fire and ice combine to descend from the skies as a devastating hailWhen Pharaoh saw that the rain and the hail and the thunders had ceased, he sinned yet again. . . . The heart of Pharaoh was hard, and he would not let the children of Israel go, as G‑d had spoken through Moshe.


Perasha Shemot

This Parasha opens by once more listing the names (shemot) of the sons of Yaakov, the Tribes, who came with him to Egypt, where “the children of Israel were fruitful, and proliferated, and multiplied, and grew very, very strong; and the land was filled with them.”

When Yaakov´s sons were alive, the children of Israel prospered in the land which Joseph had saved from starvation; but after his death, and the death of his brothers there arose a new king of Egypt who did not know Joseph. When he saw the way Am Israel multiplied, he became nervous because he saw them more numerous and mightier than the Egyptians.

Threatened by their growing numbers, Pharaoh enslaves them and orders the Jewish midwives, Shifra and Puah, to kill all male babies at birth. When they do not comply, he commands his people to cast all Jewish boys into the Nile.

The Parasha continues with the narration of the birth, the rescue, the survival and the greatness of Moshe, the leader of Am Israel.

A baby boy is born to Yocheved, and placed in a basket on the river while Miriam, the baby´s sister, stands to watch from a distance. Pharaoh’s daughter, Batya, discovers the boy, raises him as her son, and names him Moshe, “he who was drawn from the water.”

As a young adult, Moshe leaves the palace to be with his Jewish brothers, and sees their sufferings and hardships.

He sees an Egyptian beating a Jew, and kills the Egyptian. The next day he sees two Jews fighting, when he reproaches them, they tell him that they saw him kill the Egyptian, and Moshe, scared for his life flees to Midian.

There he rescues Yitro´s daughters who were thrown inside a well. He marries one of them Tzipora, and becomes a shepherd of his father-in-law’s flocks.

While shepherding his sheep, Moshe led his flock far into the desert until he reached the mountain of Hashem, Har Sinai, where

Hashem appears to him in a burning bush at the foot and instructs him to go to Pharaoh and demand: “Let My people go, so that they may serve Me.”

Aaron, Moshe´s older brother, is appointed to serve as his spokesman.

Hashem tells them to gather the Elders of the Jews to tell them that I will take the Bnai Israel out of Egypt.

The people believe since they are maaminim bnai maaminim, believers, sons of believers; but Pharaoh refuses to let them go, and even intensifies the suffering and hardships on the children of Israel.

Moshe returns to Hashem to protest: “Why have you done evil to this people?”

The parasha concludes with Hashem´s promise that the redemption is close at hand, and assures Moshe, “You shall yet see the miraculous punishments which I will inflict upon Pharaoh.”

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